Ben Enwonwu

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Odinigwe Benedict Chukwukadibia Enwonwu MBE (14 Jụlai 1917 - 5 Febrụwarị 1994), onye eji Ben Enwonwu mara,bụ onye Naịjirịa na- ese/ete ihe na akpụkwa ihe . [1] Ọ bụ omenka nke Afrịka kachasị pụta ìhè na senturi irí abụọ,ọrụ mmeghe ụzọ ya meghere ụzọ maka mmụba/nwulite nke postukolonịa na mmepe anya nyere nka Afrịka nke oge a. Ọ bụ otu n'ime ndị omenkà Afrika mbụ natara mkpu ekele,na ihe ngosi ogosipụtara na ohere ihe ngosi pụtara ihe na Europe ya na United States ma detuo ya n'akwụkwọ ndekọ mba Ụwa nke ǹkà ógè a. Kemgbe afọ 1950, ndị mgbasa ozi mba ụwa n'eto Enwonwu dịka"Oménka úkwú nke Afrịka" [2] ma mpụta ìhè ya wetere otu mba ndị isi ojii nkwado n'ụwa niile. Mkpopu Enwonwu nọ na mbara alaMercury bụ nke mere ikwanyere ya ùgwù. [3]

Ndụ Onye[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

Ben Enwonwu bụ ejima amụrụ na n'ime abalị iri na anọ n'ime ọnwa Julaị 1917 n'a ezinụlọ a ma ama nke Umueze-Aroli na Onitsha, Nigeria . Nna-ya, Omenka Odigwe Emeka Enwonwu, bụ onye Tekịnịshịanna-ọrụ na Royal Niger Company . O bubu onye òtù kansụlụ ndị Chiffu na Onitsha ma buru omenkà ọdịnala ana eweliri aka, onye kpụrụ mkpara ikikere,oche,ibo achọrọ mma na ihe oyiyi okpukpe. [4] Nne ya, Chinyelugo Iyom Nweze bụ onye ahịa ahịa na-aga nke ọma.

Mgbe nna ya nwụrụ na 1921, Enwonwu ketara ngwaọrụ ya,ga n'ihu iwepụta mma nka site n'ịpịapụta ihe n'ụdị ihe osise ndị Igbo, malitere na nna ya n'oge mbụ, bụ onye zụlitere ikike mbụ ya.

Mmụta[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

N’agbata afọ 1921 na 1931, Enwonwu gara ụlọ akwụkwọ praịmarị ise; Ụlọ Akwụkwọ elementrị nke St Joseph, Onitsha (1926–1928); ụlọ Akwụkwọ elementrị nke St, Theresa, Umuahia (1928–1929); ụlọ akwụkwọ praịmarị nke St. Mary,Port Harcourt (1929–1930); ụlọ akwụkwọ praịmarị nke Holy Trinity na praịmarị nke St. Mary,buchaa na Onitsha (1930–1931). Na 1933, Enwonwu gara ụlọ akwụkwọ St. Patrick,Ibusa ma emesịrị ọ deba aha na Government College nke Ịbadan, ma gụchaa mmụta sekọndịrị naGovernment College Ụmụahịa na 1937. Na kọleji abụọ a, ọ mụrụ gbasara nka n'aka Kenneth C. Murray . Murray bụ onye ọrụ agụmakwụkwọ na-ahụ maka agụmakwụkwọ nka na ọrụ gọọmentị kolonịal na onye mechara bụrụ onye isi ihe mgbe ochie. Mgbe ha na nọkọrọ, Enwonwu ghọrọ onye enyemaka Murray ma bụrụ onye ama ama dị ka otu n’ime ụmụ akwụkwọ nwere ọgụgụ isi na nka na uzu nke “Murray Group” (Ben C. Enwonwu, CC Ibeto, DL Nnachy, na AP Umana). Oge ọmụmụ ihe n'aka Murray kara akara mbido agụmakwụkwọ nka Enwonwu .[5] Na 1944, n’okpuru ụlọ ọrụ Shell Petrolum na njikọ aka agụmakwụkwọ n'efu British kansụl, ọ gara ụlọ akwụkwọ Slade nke Fine Art ama ama ,kọleji Mahadum, London ma na 1945, ọ ga ụlọ Akwụkwọ Ruskin, Ashmolean, Mahadum Oxford ebe Slade kwagara n’oge Agha ụwa nke Abụọ. . N'afọ 1947, ọ nwetara diplọma nke klas mbụ na agụmakwụkwọ nka site na Slade wee debanye aha ya maka ọrụ postgrajuete na ngalaba agụmakwụkanọ (na nlekwasị anya na ọdịda agbụrụ West Afrika) na Mahadum London. N’afọ 1948,Enwonwu gụcharaakwụkwọ. [6]

Nkiru Nzegwu na- ekwu na ọnọdụ ịkpa oke agbụrụ ọ hụrụ oge ọ nọ na England kpalitere mmasị ya ịbanye na mmemme a.Antropọlọji nyere ohere maka ọmụmụ sayensị nke agbụrụ, njirimara uche na nke pụtara ìhè ,omenala, yana mmekọrịta mmadụ na,ibe ya.N'áfo 1937, Murray gosipụtara ọrụ Enwonwu na galarịị Zwemmer dị na London Na 1969, ọ nwetara akara ugo mmụta dị elu na Mahadum Ahmadu Bello, Zaria.

[4]

Mgbe ya na Murray rụkọchara ọrụ ọtụtụ afọ, e goro ya ka onye nkuzi n’ụlọ akwụkwọ gọọmentị dị n’Umuahia. Dabere na Sylvester Ogbechie, Odee nke Ben Enwonwu: The Making of an African Modernist, Murray enweghị obi ụtọ na nhọrọ mahadum ahụ inye Enwonwu otu ụgwọ dị ka ndị nkuzi ndị ọzọ bụ aka ochie. Nke a mere ka esemokwu dị n'etiti mmadụ abụọ ahụ. Murray hapụrụ koleji Gọọmentị ma Enwonwu nọchiri ya dị ka onye nkuzi nka. [6] Ọ gara n'ihu n'ọrụ ya dị ka onye nkuzi nka na ụlọ akwụkwọ ndị ọzọ dị iche iche, gụnyere ụlọ akwụkwọ ndị ozi dị na prọvinsị Calabar (1940-41), ya na Edo College, Benin City (1941 43). Ọ bụ onye ndụmọdụ gọọmentị Naịjirịa na-ahụ maka nka site na 1948. N’afọ ndị na_eso 1950, ọ jegharịrị ma kuzie na United States, ma ọ malitere ọtụtụ ọrụ dị ka onye omenka na ọrụ ntabi anya. Site na 1949 rue 1954, Na 1951, ọ zutere ndị otu hiwere ọzịlarịị Lagos nye Anti Slavery and Aborigines Right Society nke Candido Da Rocha nọ n'isi ya n'oge ahụ, ma nwee James Johnson, Samuel Pearse, na Sapara Williams dịka ndị otu. [7] ma bụrụ onye na-ese ihe osise ha. Enwonwu hiwere ọtụtụ ihe ngosi nka n'ime London, Lagos, Milan, New York City, Washington DC, na Boston . N'oge ọbịbịa ya na Nigeria na 1956, Queen Elizabeth II nyere ya ọrụ ma nọdụ ala maka ihe osise nke onye na-ese ihe. N'oge ngosi ndị omenka nke Royal Society nke British na London nke 1957, o gosipụtara ihe ọkpụkpụ ọla nchara. N’afọ 1959, a họpụtara Enwonwu dịka onye nlekọta n’ọfịs Ngalaba mgbasa Ozi na Naịjirịa. [4] Ọ bụ onye òtù ibe nke Mahadum Lagos, Lagos (1966-68), onye ndụmọdụ ọdịnala nye gọọmentị Naịjirịa(1968-71), na onye nleta na Institute African Studies na Mahadum Howard, Washington, DC, na 1971. [2] A họpụtara ya prọfesọ mbụ nke Fine Arts na Mahadum Ife, Ile-Ife, site na 1971 ruo 1975. Ọ bụkwa onye ndụmọdụ nka na seketeriete mbà ụwa , Second World Black and Afrịcan Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) na Lagos nke 1977.

O sere ihe osise nke ndị Naijiria dị ka ọrụ dịrị ya onwe ya, ma gosipụta Amos Tutuola"The Brave African huntress. Ọ hiwekwara ụlọ ihe nkiri na London ma bụrụ onye otu Royal Anthropological Institute, London, bụrụkwa onye otu Royal Academy of Arts, London.

Mmetụta Nka oge a[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

N’oge ya, a na-ahụ Enwonwu dịka onye omenkà; a kọwara nka ya dị ka " immepe ọhụụ nke Afrịka n'ụdị pụrụ iche". Ogbechie kọwara nka ya dịka"[mmepe ohere nke ato nke akụkọ ihe mere gbasara nka nke ọdịdị ya na njirimara ya nwere ndịịche na nwezụga nkọwa akụkọ omenka nke oge a na odide. Isiokwu gbasara nwoke isi ocha si western Europe. [4]g onyinye ọla nchara gbasara òsìsè queen,gosipụtara na ya, dị ka onye omenkà Afrika nke oge a, jiri omume ya wee mepụta ụdị nka ọgbara ọhụụ nke echiche nke nnọchi anya na echiche nke njirimara nka dị iche na akụkọ nka na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke usoro ọgbara ọhụrụ nke Europe. . [6]

Achọpụtara ihe osise nke ada eze Ife bụ Adetutu Ademiluyi (Tutu), nke Enwonwu tere n’afọ 1973 achọwara kemgbe 1975, ka achọpụtakwara na 2017 n’ụlọ elu dị na London. [8] [9] E rere ya ọnụ ala £ 1,205,000 nke Bonhams chikọbara [10] Eserese nke Tutu, otu n’ime ihe atọ ahụ onye na-ese ihe mere, bụ akara ngosi nke mba Naịjirịa ma nlere anya dị ka ihe ga-eme ka udo dị n’etiti gọọmentị na ndị na-ekewa ugwu Biafran mgbe agha obodo bisịrị .

Eserese nke Enwonwu,nke akpọrọ"Ọkwọ Market" ma gosipụta ebe ahịa dị na Owo dị n'obodo Naijiria, nke emere na 1949, ka eweghachiri na mmemme BBC The Repair Shop, nke agbasara ozi ya na 7 Ọgọstụ 2019. Onye nwe ihe osise a mara Enwonwu, ma kọwaa ya dịka nwoke mara mma nke nwere ifuru n'olu ya.

Ọrụ ndị ama ama[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

1951Portrait of Chief Candido Joao Da Rocha which was exhibited during FESTAC LAGOS 1977

1956 – Bronze sculpture of Queen Elizabeth II

1964Sango: the Yoruba god of lightning and thunder

1967 - Ogbanje which is currently exhibited at Yemisi Shyllon Museum of Art. You can find more of Ben Enwonwu's works displayed there

1971Christine: Sold in 2019 for $1.4 million.[11]

1973Tutu

1986Risen Christ: was displayed University of Ibadan but was torched as a result of a political-religious tensions.

Enwonwu's work is displayed in the National Gallery of Modern Art, Lagos.[12] His works can also be viewed at the Virtual Museum of Modern Nigerian Art.

1944 - Shell Petroleum Scholarship: to study in the United Kingdom

1954- National Merit Award: for academic and intellectual attainment in Nigeria

1958 - Commonwealth Certificate in London: for contributions to art by the Royal Institute of Art

1958 - Member of the Order of the British Empire

1971 - Officer of the National Order of the Republic in Senegal

1980 - National Order of Merit in Nigeria: for contributions to art in Nigeria

Hụ kwa[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

  • Ndepụta ndị Igbo

Nrụtụaka[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

  1. The painter who 'Africanised Queen Elizabeth' (17 October 2019).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Chuks Iloegbunam, "Independent expressions: Ben Enwonwu", The Guardian, 4 March 1994.
  3. Enwonwu: A Young Crater on Mercury Named for an African Modernist Artist (3 February 2009).
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Enwonwu's Legacy. BEF Foundation. Retrieved on 21 November 2014.
  5. (2008) Ben Enwonwu: The Making of an African Modernist. New York: University Rochester Press. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 (2008) Ben Enwonwu: The Making of an African Modernist. New York: University Rochester Press. 
  7. Nigerian Chronicle. (1910/09/02). The Nigerian Chronicle, 'News of the Week', P.2. Accessed from (NewsBank/Readex, Database: World Newspaper Archive
  8. Brown, Mark (6 February 2018). Tutu's return: missing Nigerian masterpiece found in London flat (en).
  9. "Decades after it went missing, Nigerian masterpiece is found in London apartment". (in en)
  10. Chutel, Lynsey. "The long lost painting known as Africa's Mona Lisa has sold for a record price". (in en-US)
  11. "Ben Enwonwu: The Nigerian painter behind 'Africa's Mona Lisa'", BBC News, 17 October 2019. Retrieved on 17 October 2019.
  12. NATIONAL GALLERY OF MODERN ART (NGMA), LAGOS. Retrieved on 22 May 2011.

Njikọ dị na mpụga[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]