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Asụsụ Volta-Niger

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Ezinụlọ asụsụ Volta-Niger, nke a makwaara dị ka West Benue-Congo ma ọ bụ East Kwa, bụ otu n'ime alaka nke Ezinụlọ asụsụ Niger-Congo, nke nwere ma eleghị anya nde mmadụ iri asaa na-asụ ya. N'etiti ndị a bụ asụsụ kachasị mkpa nke ndịda Naịjirịa, Benin, Togo, na ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ Ghana: Yoruba, Igbo, Bini, na Gbe.

E tinyela asụsụ ndị a n'ụzọ dị iche iche n'ime ezinụlọ Kwa ma ọ bụ Benue–Congo ma ọ bụ, malite na 1970s, jikọtara ya na ha kpam kpam. Williamson & Blench (2000) kewapụrụ asụsụ ebe a a na-akpọ Volta-Niger na ndị ọzọ. Güldemann (2018) anaghị ahụta ụkpụrụ doro anya maka ikewa asụsụ n'ime ezinụlọ abụọ ma ọ bụ atọ ma na-edobe nnukwu mkpokọta na aha Benue-Kwa maka ha niile.

Alaka dị iche iche[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

The constituent groups of the Volta–Niger family, along with the most important languages in terms of number of speakers, are as follows (with number of languages for each branch in parentheses):Àtụ:According to whom   Asụsụ Yoruboid na Akoko ka ejikọrọ dị ka ngalaba Defoid, mana n'oge na-adịbeghị anya, ha, Edoid na Igboid ka a tụrụ aro ka ha bụrụ ngalaba izizi nke otu a na-akpọbeghị aha, nke a na-akpọkarị yeai. N'otu aka ahụ, Oko, Nupoid, na Idomoid na-agbakọkarị ọnụ n'okpuru mkpọokwu noi. Ukaan bụ asụsụ Atlantic–Congo, mana amabeghị ma ọ bụ nke ezinụlọ Volta–Niger; Blench na-enyo enyo na ọ dị nso na Benue-Congo.

N'ime nyocha kọmputa na-akpaghị aka (ASJP 4) site na Müller et al. (2013): [1]

  • Gbe Ndị Yoruboid sonyere na Kwa.
  • Otu Edoid na Cross River ọnụ.
  • Akpes na Ukaan otu.
  • Oko nọ n'ime Idomoid.

Alaka na ebe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Asụsụ Volta-Niger a na-ahụ anya na-acha pinki pinki

N'okpuru ebe a bụ ndepụta nke isi ngalaba Volta-Niger na ebe ha bụ isi (ebe dị iche iche) na Nigeria dabere na Blench (2019). [2]

Okwu ntụnyere[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụfọdụ alaka dị mkpa nke ezinụlọ Volta-Niger na Benue-Congo na-elekwasị anya na Naijiria, Cameroon, na Benin.

Nkọwa okwu ndị bụ isi na alaka Volta-Niger dị iche iche:

Asụsụ anya ntị imi ezé ire ọnụ ọbara ọkpụkpụ osisi mmiri Iri nri aha
Yoruba Ndị omeiwu na ndị ọzọ Imú eyín ahọn Ọ bụ n'oge na-adịghị anya Ọ bụ n'ebe ahụ ka a na-eme egungun igi Omi Isiokwu Ọkụ
Proto-Yoruboid[3] *e-jú *e-tĩ́́ *ɪ-ŋmʊ *e-ɲĩ́́ *ʊ-ɓã́ *a-rʊ̃ã *ɛ́-byɛ̀ *V-k'效'ũ *e-gĩ (i-) *o-mĩ *ịgbasa *o-ɗú
Proto-Yoruboid[4] *éjú *ịdị ugbu a *Imbụ *E nwere ike ịbụ na ọ bụ na ọ bụ Yor. ahịhịa *A na-ahụ maka ya? *ɛ̀gyɛ̀ __ibo____ibo____ibo__ *gbgbgbụ Yor. igi *Ọ bụ otú e si eme ihe *Ọnụ ọgụgụ *ọbụ- ?
Proto-Edoid[5] *dhI-dhω *ghU-chɔGɪ *I-chuəNi; *-chuveNi *dhI-kωN *U-dhamhɪ *A-nuə *U-ɟɪ-, -ɟɪa *U-thaNɪ *A-mɪN *dhɪ *dhI-ni
Proto-Gbe[6] *-ọ *aɖú *- nke a na-eme *-ɖũ; *-ɖũkpá *-ʁwũ *-χwú *-tĩ́́ *-tsĩ Ọ bụ ya mere o ji bụrụ onye [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji]
[7]Akoko (Arigidi) [1] Ódʒù oge mgbụsị akwụkwọ (odʒ) Udo na-adị N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị Ọ bụ mgbe ahụ ka ọ na-eme Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya Ọfụma edʒĩ dʒō
[8][9]-Akpes; [1] Akpes (Ajowa) [2] *Ceyó *Aùgù *àhũ *Iyuyu *ndàlì *onu Akụkọ na-ekwu maka ya Owuuni imi ìmũ̀nũ̀
Ayere[10] Ọ bụ n'afọ Eandi Onye na-eme ihe nkiri Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ Unu afọ Eʃwè egbe oŋwu Ọ bụ mgbe ahụ ka ọ dị Ihe ndị e dere n'oge a bụ abụ
Ahan[10] Ewu Eandi owũ eɲĩ Ịga n'ihu arị Afọ ndị ọzọ igbegbe Oɲĩ
[11]-Nupoid [1] *e-wie *CV-tuNukpua *V-bhʊə *jiNkɔN *a-giNtara *V-giə *CV-kiukuNu *V-nke a na-eme *nuNŋwa *gi *CV-jɛ
[11]-Ebiroid [1] *e-ji *ʊ-tɔkpa *a-ʃɪ *a-ɲɪ *ɪra-rɛ *Aɲa *Ọnụọ *ɔ-tʃɪ *e-ɲi *rɪ *ɪrɛ-ʃa
Oko[12] áɲẽ́ Ọ bụ n'oge na-adịghị anya Ọkụ Íru Ọ bụ n'oge a Ówó Ndị Kraịst Ófu Esáma Ebib Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ ebe
[13]-Idomoid[1] *eyi *ʊrʊ/a- *eŋgwu *ìmàǹjī *ìmànyì; *ma-yeni? *ri *ɛɲɪ
[14]-Ukaan [1] *ìdʒì *ʊrʊgV N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ bụ n'ihi ya *ʊ̀ɲʊ̀gV; laǹr N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-eme __ibo__ *Onye na-eme ihe nkiri *Ebee ka ndị mmadụ si *òɣwó N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-eme *Ebe e si nweta ya *M̀ *tinye
Proto-Benue-Congo[15] *-mkpu *-tuŋi *-Zua *-nini, *-nino; *-sana; *-gaŋgo (±) *-Lemi; *-ọdọ mmiri *-zi; *-luŋ *-kupe *-titi; *-kwon *-izi (±); *-ni (±) *-zina

Ọnụ ọgụgụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ntụnyere nke ọnụọgụ n'asụsụ ọ bụla: [16]

Nchịkọta Asụsụ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Akpes Akpes íɡbōn / ēkìnì īdīan (ì) Ụzọ (ì) īnīŋ (ì) īʃōn (ì) Ịrụ ọrụ n'ụzọ ọzọ Ịrụ ọrụ (ì) ānāānīŋ (ì) Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ ɔ̀Roh́ʃ īyōf (ì)
Akokoid, Akokoid Ariɡidi (Iɡasi) [N'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge na-adịghị anya ka a ga-eme ka a mata ihe ọ ga-eme] [Keki] [kedà] [kenɛ] [kéntɔ̀] [kefà] [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] [kerò] [Kenda] [Kejè]
Akokoid, Akokoid Òɡè [Ekan] [ìyí] [ídaː] [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] [Nke a] [Idejuí] [Iro] [Ọdịdị] [ebe a]
Ebe e si ebi ya pụọ Ayere (Uwu) Ọ dị mfe N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị Itha Ọdịdị N'oge na-adịghị anya Anya īd͡ʒwī īrō Ọdịdị dị mfe īɡwá
Ebe e si ebi ya pụọ Ayu ɪdɪ ahwa /afah ijikọta anaŋaʃ ugbu a n'oge a na-eme ihe ataraŋaʃ (3 ?) anababoɡ (4 ?) atuluboɡ (5 ?) iʃoɡ / ajalaboɡ
Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Cabe (Ede Cabe) Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ihe nkiri Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka a na-eme ya Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka a na-eme ya Ọ bụ otú e si eme ihe Memu Ọ na-eme ihe med͡ʒe Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka a na-eme ya Ọ na-eme ihe nkiri Ọ bụ otú e si eme ihe
Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Ede Ica (Ica) N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị naɟi Nwanne nwoke ɛ̃ɛ̃ Ọdịdị N'ihi ya ɛɟɛ ɛɟɔ Ọmụmụ ihe Ọ bụ n'oge a
Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Idaca (Ede Idaca) òbú med͡ʒi Metha Mgbapụta Meru Metha med͡ʒe Id͡ʒɔ Msan Maụma
Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Ifè (1) Ọchịchị Medzì Metta Mmanụ ala Meru Methafa Mgbasa ozi Metan Msan maá
Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Ifè (2) Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a ga-eji ya mee ihe Medzì Metta Mmanụ ala Meru Methafa Mgbasa ozi Metan Msan maá
Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Ulukwumi Ọkụ Memuzi Métɑ M̀rɛ̃ Meru Mmanụ ala Meze Mmanụ ala Ọ bụ n'ihi ya Mmanụ ala
Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Yoruba oókan [oókɔ̃] eéjì [eéɟì] ẹẹ́ta [ɛɛ́ta] ẹẹ́rin [ɛɛ́ɾĩ] aárùn-ún [aɾũ̀ pro] ẹẹ́fà [ụgwọ] eéje [eéɟe] ẹẹ́́́́ [jọɛɛ́ɟɔ] Ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a ga-eji ya mee ihe [Mgbe anyị si n'ebe ahụ]
Defoid, Yoruboid, Igala Igala (1) [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Enyemaka Ọta Ọ̀lɛ̀̀ Ọ bụ n'ebe ahụ Ọ bụ n'ihi na Ebje Ọdịdị Ọ bụ n'ebe ahụ Ọ bụ n'afọ
Defoid, Yoruboid, Igala Igala (2) ínyé [nke a] èjì [èdʒì] ẹ̀tā [ɛ̀tā] ẹ̀lè̩ [ɛ̀lɛ̀] è̩lú [ɛ̀lú] ẹ̀fè̩ [ɛ̀fɛ̀] ẹ̀biē [èbjiē] ẹ̀jọ̄ [ɛ̀dʒɔ] ẹ̀lá [ɛ̀lá] ẹ̀ɡwá [ɛ̀ɡwá]
Ukaan Ukaan (Asụsụ Ikan) ʃí tāːs / hrāhr nāj / nā hrʊ̀ːn / tòːn hràdá hránèʃì nàːnáj / nàːná hráoʃì òpu *
Edoid, Delta Degema ɔβʊ́ iβə́ sáj (ɪsáj) Ini Súwón (ɪsúwón) jɪ́sa (ɪjɪ́sá) Sikhéβə (isiikhéβá) anɪ́ (ɪnʊ́mán) əsí (ɔβʊ óte mʊ iɡ͡beɲ) (10 -1) əɡ͡beɲ (iɡ͡béɲ)
Edoid, Delta Engenni avʊ̀ Iva Ọ bụ n'afọ Ọdịdị dị n'etiti Anya Ọnyụ ìsyovà Ịdị iche àvʊ́mó (10 -1) íɡ͡bèì
Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora Nri (1) òwó [òwó] (nke a na-eji naanị ịgụta ọnụ) èvá [èvá]́ Ọ bụ mgbe a na-eme ihe nkiri [enɛ́] ìsén [ìsɛ́] ma ọ bụ [ìsɛ Nnọkọ] ?? [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] ìhírọ̃n Ọchịchị [nke a na-akpọ] Nkwupụta [ihĩĩĩĩno] ìɡ͡bé [ìɡ͡bé]
Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora Edo (Bini) (2) ɔ̀k͡pá / òwo (nke a na-eji naanị ịgụta ọnụ) èva èha Ọ bụ n'oge ìsɛn ěhàn ìhinrɔ́n N'oge Nkwupụta ìɡ͡bé
Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora Emai (Emai-luleha-Ora) ɔ́k͡pa Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ Oge a ele ele ìíhìɛ́n Ehen ìhíɔ́n Afọ ndị ọzọ ìsín ìɡ͡bé
Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora Esan ɔ́k͡pá èva dị ugbu a Nkwupụta Ịnọ n'anya ụtụtụ N'ihi ya, ndị mmadụ ga-ebi n'ihi ya N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ na-eme ihe nkiri N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-eme ìɡ͡bé
Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee Etsako (Yekhee) ọkpa [ɔk͡pà] eva [evà] ya [ya] ejiẹ [éʒié] ise [ịhụ] Nke ahụ [nke a] isevha [ìsévhà] eleeh [éːléː] ithi [ìtií] iɡbe [ìɡ͡bé]̄
Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee Ghotuo ɔ́k͡pā èva Ọdịdị èēnè ìīʒè / ìīʒ grá ìjhēhà / ìēhà jh = otu izu, vd ìhīɲã̄ ènhīē nh = n'enweghị olu? ìsī ìɡ͡bē LM͡L
Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee Okphela (1) Oɡ͡ɣwo __ibo__ Ọdịdị Ọ bụ ya na ya Ọdịda Anyanwụ Ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọ Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka ọ dị Ọdịdị a na-akpọ ya elele na-ekwu A na-akpọ ya Ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka ọ na-eme
Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee Ivbie-North-Okphele-Arhe (2) oɣuo Ebe ọ bụ na esɛ Jenụwarị Iʃie Esesa Iʃilua ele ele ili iɡ͡be
Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee Ọkpụkpụ oɡwo [òɡwò] eva [Eva] Nke ahụ [nke a] ene [onye a mụrụ] ichie [it͡ʃè] esesa [esâsà] ifuena [ìfwènà] n'ime obodo Iwere ya iɡbe [ìɡ͡bé]
Edoid, Northwestern, Southern Okpamheri Ọkụ Ebe ọ bụ na nke ahụ Enen Ọ bụ n'oge eaza izuonua Ọ bụ onye Eenian isie iɡ͡be
Edoid, Southwestern Isoko (1) Ọpụpụ [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-akpọ N'ihi ya, ọ bụ N'oge na-adịghị anya [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] ɪ́rɪ́ː ɪ́zɪ́ː Akara
Edoid, Southwestern Isoko (2) Ọvụ ịvẹ ịsạ ịnị isoi Azụmaahịa Fụli elu ịrịị izii ikpe
Edoid, Southwestern Urhobo Ovò ǐvɛ̀ ěrà Ọ bụ n'oge ochie ǐjòɾĩ̀ Ọssan N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-eme ɛ̌ɾéɾẽ ǐríɾĩ ǐxwè
Igboid, Ekpeye Ekpeye nwùrnér, ŋìnɛ́ ɓɨ̂bɔ́ bh = IPA [ɓ] ɓɨ́tɔ́ ir = IPA [ɨ] ɓɨ́nɔ̂ o̠r = IPA [ɔ] ɓisê ɓisû ɓɨ́sábɔ́ ɓsátɔ́́ ɓɨ́sánɔ̂ ma ọ bụ nàzáma ma ọ bụ názáma ga-abụ na ọ ga-abụ ɗì dh = IPA [ɗ]
Ndị Igbo Igbo (1) Óụ̀ àbʊ̄ɔ́ na-eme ihe ike n'oge ọzọ Anya Anya Asaa Asatɔ́ Anya na-adịghị ìri
Ndị Igbo Egwuregwu Igbo (2) ebe ọ bụla àbʊ̀ɔ́ ~ m̀bʊ̀̀ ~ nam̀̀ ton ~ na-eme (ǹ) nɔ ~ nanɔ se~ ìse ʃiì ~ ìʃiì saà ~ n'Asaà satɔ̄ ~ satɔ̄ totū ~__ssw____ssw____sw____ssy____ssw__ ìri
Ndị Igbo Igbo (3) ebe ọ bụla Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ na-eme ihe na-aga n'ihu Anya Anya Asaà Ọdịdị Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka ọ na-esi ìri
Ndị Igbo Ikwere Óụ̀ Ọ bụ n'oge a Ọ̀tɔ́ Ọ bụ n'oge gara aga Ogologo oge ìsínù Ọ bụ n'ihi na Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ihe nkiri Isiokwu N'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-akpọ N'Anya
Oko Oko (Oko-Eni-Osayen) ɔ́́́́rɛ / ɔ́́rɛ Ọ̀bɔ̀rɛ̀ Ọta Ọ bụ na Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-akpọ ɔ́pɔ́nɔ́́́́rɛ (5 + 1) * úfɔ́mbɔ́rɛ́ (5 + 2) * Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ka a mara ya ùbɔ́ɔrɛ̀ (< 'iri erughị otu') * Ọ bụ n'ebe ahụ
Nupoid, Ebira-Gade Ebira Ọnyɪ̄ Ọ̀̀vā Ọ̀̀̀̀ta Ọ̀̀nà Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya hɪ̋nɔ̋nyɪ̄ (5+ 1) hɪ̋m̋bā (5+ 2) hɪ̋n̋tá (5+ 3) hɪ̋ǹnà (5+ 4) Ọ̀ɛ́wʊ́
Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari Gbari ɡ͡bmaːɾí ŋwã̂ba ŋwã̂t͡ʃa ŋwã̂ɲi ŋwãyū tnúwĩ (5+ 1) tnâba (5+ 2) tọnt͡ʃa (5+ 3) tnâɲi (5+ 4) ŋwã̂wò
Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe Kakanda ɡúní ɡúbà ɡútá ɡúni ɡútũ ɡútuaɲĩ̀ (5+ 1) ɡútuabà (5+ 2) ɡútòtá (5+ 3) ɡútuani (5+ 4) ɡúwo
Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe Akpụkpọ ahụ niní ɡúbà ɡútá ɡúni ɡútsũ ɡútswàɲĩ (5+ 1) ɡútwàbà (5+ 2) ɡútotá (5+ 3) ɡútwã̀ni (5+ 4) ɡúwo
Idomoid, Akweya, Eloyi Eloyi (Afo) (1) N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị ńɡwòpó ńɡwòlá ńɡwòndó ńɡwolɔ́ ńɡwɔ̀rɛnyí Ọ dị ugbu a ńɡwòrndá N'ihi ya, ọ na-agụkarị Uwó
Idomoid, Akweya, Eloyi Eloyi (Afo) (2) ònzé òp ólá ōndō ɔ̄lɔ̀ o̠= ɔ ōròwò Ọ bụ n'ebe a na-eme ihe nkiri óndá òndō N'ihi ya,
Idomoid, Akweya, Eloyi Eloyi (3) ònzé òp ólá ōndō ō̠lò̠ ōròwò ò̠rɛnyi óndá òndō N'ihi ya,
Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma Agatu óyè [ɔ́jè] ẹ̀pà [ɛ̀pà] ẹ̀ta [tàta] ẹ̀nẹ̀ [ɛ́nɛ̀] ẹ̀họ́ [ɛ̀hɔ́] ẹ̀hílí [ɛhílí] àhápà [àhápà] [àhàtá] àhànè [àhànè] ìɡwó [ìɡwó ]
Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma Alago Anya epụ Oge Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ Ọ bụ n'afọ ìhirì Ahapà na-abịa n'ihu àhánɛ̀ ìɡwó
Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma Idoma [eje] ẹpà [ɛ́pà] ẹta [ọ ga-abụ] ẹhẹ [ɛ́hɛ́] ẹọh [ɛ́hɔ] ẹhili [ɛ́hili] Ahapà na-agbagha [na-agbagwoju anya] àhánẹ [àhánɛ́] iɡwó [iɡwó ]
Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma Igede óòk͡pók͡póh Ismiyèh Itha Ineh ērʊ̄ / īrʊ̄ īrwɔ̀ wayndụ Iùụ̀ na Ụtọ Inikúh ìhíkítʃú īwō
Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma Yala Ọkpụkpụ Ọ bụ Ọta Ọ bụ n'afọ ole na ole ka a na-eme erwɔ Eiriwi a na-akpọ ya araata Aranɛ̀ ìɡwó

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ihe osise nke asụsụ Niger-Congo na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-ekwu ya

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Müller, André, Viveka Velupillai, Søren Wichmann, Cecil H. Brown, Eric W. Holman, Sebastian Sauppe, Pamela Brown, Harald Hammarström, Oleg Belyaev, Johann-Mattis List, Dik Bakker, Dmitri Egorov, Matthias Urban, Robert Mailhammer, Matthew S. Dryer, Evgenia Korovina, David Beck, Helen Geyer, Pattie Epps, Anthony Grant, and Pilar Valenzuela. 2013. ASJP World Language Trees of Lexical Similarity: Version 4 (October 2013).
  2. Blench (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages, 4th, Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation. 
  3. Akinkugbe, Olufẹmi Odutayo. 1978. A comparative phonology of Yoruba dialects, Iṣẹkiri and Igala. Doctoral dissertation, University of Ibadan.
  4. Aubry, N., H. Friedman & K. Pozdniakov. 2004. Proto-Yoruba-Igala Swadesh list. Manuscript. Paris: Langage, Langues et Cultures d’Afrique (LLACAN), Centre National de la Récherche Sciéntifique (CNRS).
  5. Elugbe, Ben Ohiọmamhẹ. 1989. Comparative Edoid: phonology and lexicon. Delta Series No. 6. Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt Press.
  6. Capo, Hounkpati B.C. 1991. A Comparative Phonology of Gbe. Publications in African Languages and Linguistics, 14. Berlin/New York: Foris Publications & Garome, Bénin: Labo Gbe (Int).
  7. Fadọrọ, Jacob Oludare. 2010. Phonological and lexical variations in Akokoid. Doctoral dissertation, University of Ibadan.
  8. Ibrahim-Arirabiyi, Femi 1989. A comparative reconstruction of Akpes lects: Akoko North, Ondo State. MA thesis. Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages, University of Port Harcourt.
  9. Blench, Roger. 2011. Comparative Akpes. m.s.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Blench, Roger. 2007. The Ayere and Ahan languages of Central Nigeria and their affinities.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Bankale, Oyetayo Abiodun. 2006. Comparative Ebiroid and Nupoid. Doctoral dissertation, University of Ibadan.
  12. Jungraithmayr, Herrmann. 1973. Eine Wortliste des Ọkọ, der Sprache von Ogori (Nigeria). Africana Marburgensia 6: 58-66.
  13. Armstrong, Robert G. 1983. The Idomoid Languages of the Benue and Cross River Valleys. Journal of West African Languages 13: 91-147.
  14. Abiodun, Michael Ajibola. 1999. A comparative phonology and morphology of Ukaan dialects of Old Akoko division. Doctoral dissertation. University of Ilorin.
  15. de Wolf, Paul. 1971. The Noun-Class System of Proto-Benue-Congo. Janua Linguarum. Series Practica 167. The Hague: Mouton.
  16. Chan (2019). The Niger-Congo Language Phylum. Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.